About Drip İrrigation

IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND IRRIGATION IN AGRICULTURE

Turkey can irrigate 8.7 million hectares to 4.7 million hectares of land can be irrigated. 74% of the total water used in our country is used in agricultural irrigation. The most water loss among these irrigation methods is the most commonly used release irrigation method (35% – 60% water loss). The use of drip irrigation is less in our country, but there is less water loss (5% – 25% water loss).

The indiscriminate and unconscious use of water by farmers can harm the country and the natural resources they use. Due to unconscious irrigation in our country, thousands of decares of land has become irreplaceable and yield losses have been experienced.

As a result of unconscious irrigation, excessive water is given to environmental problems such as soil erosion, ground water rise and salinization, barrenness and also the sustainability of natural resources is endangered. With the delay of irrigation, stress and unnecessary productivity and income losses occur in the plant.

By avoiding these problems and ensuring the sustainability of water resources, as well as benefiting from water resources in future generations, it is necessary to protect the ecosystem by using the required irrigation system considering the current society and its objectives. Therefore, in recent years, more economical and more efficient new irrigation technologies have been developed.

The first rule in irrigation in agricultural production is that the water coming to the beginning of the field is spread to the whole field with the least loss. In this way, efficiency is increased by saving water. The most suitable system for this is the drip irrigation system. In our country, it has been used intensively in recent years. This is because the use of fertilizer with irrigation water, less energy use, quality and standards in production to comply with the highest level of compliance, less labor and struggle costs require, operation and control is very easy. It is very suitable for automation and enables to use the technology at the highest level.

The drip system eliminates the lack of moisture in the soil compared to other methods. Thus, a small amount of irrigation water at the root zone of the plant is given to soil without creating stress in the plant. As it is in the form of a drip, the water falls to the soil with a low pressure and not only the entire surface of the soil but also the ground and the environment where it falls. No water loss. Since the soil is kept constantly moist, it ensures high yield and quality.

Fertilizer is supplied with water and very efficient fertilization is done. In almost all parts of the land, equal amounts of water and fertilizer are all produced by the plants in equal amounts and at the same rate. So it also comes to harvest.

Since the whole surface is not wetted compared to wild irrigation system, more drip system is saved.
The same amount of water is supplied to each area in the drip system, while the watering system does not dispense an equal amount of water to each area.
Water leakage caused by unnecessary leakage of water seen in the release irrigation system is not seen in the drip system and there is less water loss.
Again, according to the release irrigation system in the field of drip irrigation system operations are made easier.
Water in the irrigation system is distributed everywhere in the field of weeds in the field by growing weeds damage the weeds in the drip system is seen more. T
Diseases in plants are reduced.
Smaller water sources are used in the drip system compared to the release irrigation system.
Fertilizer is added to the water by dropping fertilizer to fertilizer is also saved.
All the same size and quantity of the product at the same time harvesting the quality of the products at the same time and provides early.
Irrigation, energy, agricultural struggle and fertilization costs are reduced.
It is safely applied in salty waters and salty soils.

If desired, simple or advanced computerized automatic inspection equipment can be used in drip irrigation systems. With the help of automatic inspection equipment, the humidity level in the soil can be controlled to a certain level. The valves in the system can be opened and closed automatically, the desired amount of irrigation water and fertilizer can be applied.

If drip irrigation is planned in any area; First of all, it should be investigated whether the drip irrigation method meets the current conditions. Then, the data required for planning should be determined by a resource survey, the drip irrigation system should be planned in accordance with the conditions and scientific principles and all the elements of the system should be dimensioned (such as dripper flow, dripper interval, lateral spacing, lateral flow rate, main flow rate and diameter). Then the drip irrigation system should be determined how to set up the land, drip irrigation system should be installed on the land as planned, how to operate the system (usage principles) should be determined and training should be given to the farmer about the system and its operation, maintenance and repair should be explained. Then the problems faced by the farmer should be monitored and the problems to be solved should be determined and explained to the farmer. If one or more of these processes are not done, it will not be possible to achieve a successful irrigation and the expected benefit with the established system. When drip irrigation systems are not installed by an experienced technical staff, leakage losses can occur at the connection points and farmers often do not care. These losses lead to a decrease in irrigation efficiency, and a deterioration in the water distribution in the field.

The important feature of the drip irrigation is that the entire soil surface is not wetted, so only a few areas around the dripper are wetted. However, this situation causes a misunderstanding in some farmers that the plant cannot get enough water, cannot get enough water and causes the farmers to give water for a long time until the small areas that are wetted by drip irrigation cover each other. In fact, when a small area on the soil surface is wetted by drip irrigation, the area wetted in the soil expands to a wider area so that a wider area in the soil wets and these areas overlap, and the plant roots can find enough water.

Operation of the drip irrigation system: There are some points to be considered during the operation of the drip irrigation system:

* It should be known how many operating units of drip irrigation system are planned, how to plan irrigation time in each unit (when to start irrigation and how much irrigation water will be given or how many hours watering will be done).

* If precipitation is present, it is important to know how many days of irrigation will be delayed according to the amount of precipitation.

* In determining the time to start irrigation, water consumption values ​​can be used or tools such as a tensiometer showing the humidity level in the soil can be used. * Filters should be cleaned and maintained periodically in order to prevent clogging of the drip irrigation system, dilute acid (such as hydrochloric or ortho-phosphoric acid) should be applied several times during the irrigation season and after the last watering.

* Macro and micro nutrients required by the plant should be applied to the irrigation water in the amount and time required by the plant in order to obtain high and high quality yield from the plant irrigated with drip irrigation.

* Fertilizers with fertilizers, which means that fertilizers are dissolved in water together with irrigation water, are prevented from washing fertilizers, water and soil pollution is reduced, fertilizer is used efficiently, the salinity of the root zone due to fertilizers is reduced to low levels, the plant is benefited from fertilizer and irrigation water at the highest level, time, labor,

The tool and energy are saved and high efficiency can be obtained.